Onomastics: kuphunzira mayina enieni

Ngakhale magwero amawu atha kukhala otanthauzira pang'ono, tili ndi masewera kuti athe kuzichepetsera. Poterepa, limatchula mayina enieni. Mayina omwe ndiotitsogolera, m'miyoyo yathu komanso pantchito yomwe tikuwonetsa patsamba lino.

Koma ngakhale titadziwa zomwe Tanthauzo lenileni la dzina la tsiku, sakanatha kutsalira potionetsa zambiri. 'Zambiri' izi zidzakhala zoyambira komanso chiyambi cha mayina onse omwe timagwiritsa ntchito. Osangotchula anthu, komanso malo. Chifukwa chilichonse chili ndi chiyambi! Kodi mukufuna kudziwa?

Kodi Onomastics ndi chiyani?

Onomastics Phunziro la mayina enieni

Tikanena za liwu ili, zowonadi kuti aliyense amadziwa tanthauzo lake. Titha kunena za iye kuti ndi nthambi kapena gawo la lexicography. Ndiye kuti, kusonkhanitsa konseko kapena gulu la mawu omwe chilankhulo chili nacho. Koma pankhani ya onomastics, mawu awa amatanthauza mayina oyenera monga mayina, komanso omwe amatchula malo, zomera kapena zochitika, ndi zina zambiri. Sitingathe kuiwala kuti mawu onomastic amachokera ku Chigriki ndipo amatha kutanthauziridwa ngati 'luso logawa mayina kapena kutchula mayina'.

Gulu kapena nthambi za Onomastics

Chikhalidwe

Nthambi yofunika kwambiri ndi anthroponymy, amatchedwanso anthropological onomastics. Mmenemo, zomwe mumaphunzira ndi mayina enieni ndi mayina awo. Mwa iwo mulinso mayina. Zachidziwikire, m'miyambo ina, yomwe ili kutali kwambiri, amangogwiritsa ntchito dzina lenileni kapena dzina loyamba, lomwe ndi lomwe limawazindikiritsa.

Amati ma anthropony ambiri amachokera m'maina ena wamba. Chifukwa chake nthawi zina zimakhala zovuta kudziwa tanthauzo. Kuti tidziwe, tiyenera kuyang'ana pa etymology. Popeza adzakhala amene amatibweretsera mbiri ya dzinalo. Tili ndi anthroponymics ochokera ku Greek, Roman, Hebrew, Germanic kapena Arab.

Monga chidwi, zaka zambiri zapitazo, Dzinalo lomwe linapatsidwa kwa mwana wamwamuna anali mawu oyamba omwe bambo akewo adamuwona atamuwona. Pomwe Aroma ngati analibe dzina losankhidwa, amayang'ana manambala.

Toponymy

Chimodzi mwazinthu, mkati mwa dzina la tsikulo, zomwe zimaphunzira mayina oyenera amalo. Ngakhale kuti si mayina okhawo omwe amalankhula za toponymy, koma ndizofala kuti tiwapeze mu anatomy kapena biology. Mpaka kumapeto kwa zaka za zana la khumi ndi chisanu ndi chinayi pomwe izi zimasonkhanitsidwa. nthawi mu RAE.

Tiyenera kudziwa kuti mayina amalo amathanso kupezeka m'maina a anthu. Koma iwonso ndi mayina omwe amadziwika ndi mikhalidwe kapena zinthu zomwe amawatchulira. Chifukwa chake sizosadabwitsa kuti dzina la malo limapereka zikhalidwe zachilengedwe ngati kulumikizana kwachinsinsi, koma ndiye chiyambi cha dzinalo. Pakati pa toponymy tili ndi ma hydronyms (mitsinje), thalasonyms (nyanja ndi nyanja), oronyms (maina a mapiri) kapena theonyms (mayina a Amulungu).

Bionymy

Poterepa, ingonena kuti ikuyang'ana kwambiri pakuphunzira mayina a zinthu zamoyo. Pakati pathu timayang'ana nyama ndi zomera. Kumbali imodzi tili nayo alireza lomwe ndi gawo lomwe limafotokoza nyama pomwe tikukamba phytonymy, ndiye zomerazo zidzakhala protagonists.

Odonymy

Zachidziwikire, ngati titalankhula za kugawa mayina, sitinganyalanyaze omwe amayang'anira misewu, mabwalo kapena misewu ikuluikulu. Popeza onse, makamaka mayina awo, adzakhala gawo lotchedwa odonym. Mawuwa amachokera ku Chigiriki chakale ndipo amatha kumasuliridwa kuti 'dzina lanjira'.

Mbiri ya Onomastics mdziko lathu

Ziyenera kunenedwa choncho ku Spain kunali zinenero zingapo monga Celtiberian kapena Tartessian, pakati pa ena. Ichi chinali chisonyezo choti zikhalidwe ndi kusiyanasiyana kulipo mdziko lathu. Chifukwa chake yatisiyira phokoso, zilembo ndi mizu yamawu osiyanasiyana. Mwachitsanzo, aku Spain ndi aku Iberia amagawana mavawelo asanu omwe amawasiyanitsa kuzilankhulo zina zachi Romance. Monga zilembo zina zomwe sizichokera ku Latin ngati -arro kapena -ueco.

A Roma atafika, adatenga Chilatini nawo ndipo motere, amafuna kuti izi zidziwike kwambiri. Kutaya zilankhulo zambiri zomwe zidalankhulidwa. Pakapita nthawi ndi mibadwo, ndi Chilatini chokha chomwe chidakhazikitsidwa. Ngakhale akunenanso kuti Basque nawonso idakana nthawi ino. Chifukwa chake, gawo lalikulu la mayina kapena mayina amalo amachokera Chilatini chotchedwa chotukwana. Popeza zilankhulo zonse zidaphatikizidwamo. Kuwunikanso mbiri kuti mudziwe komwe mayina ambiri adachokera.