Etymology: chiyambi cha mawu

Tazingidwa ndi mawu ndipo ngakhale sitiganiza, ali ndi zambiri zotiuza. Chifukwa sikuti ndikungolankhula za tanthauzo lake mophweka, koma kudziwa tanthauzo lake. trajectory, kusinthika kwake ndi kusintha kwake munthawi iliyonse yakale komwe ali. Chifukwa chake, kuphunzira tanthauzo la mayina kumatipatsa zambiri. Etymology imachokera ku Latin 'etymologia' ndipo nthawi yomweyo kuchokera ku Greek yopangidwa ndi 'étymos' (element, true) ndi 'logia' (mawu).

Chifukwa chake, etymology Ndizopadera kapena sayansi yomwe imatiwonetsa kuphunzira kwathunthu zakale zamawu kapena mawu. Popeza tonsefe timafunikira kudziwa komwe tidachokera komanso mawu omwe timagwiritsa ntchito tsiku lililonse. Mtundu wamtundu wobadwira, koma mawuwo ndi ofanana, ndi njira yomwe etymology imatiwonetsera. Kodi mukufuna kudziwa?

Kodi etymology ndi chiyani?

Etymology Chiyambi cha mawu

Mwachidule, takhala tikulengeza kale zomwe zimaphatikizapo. Titha kunena kuti etymology ndi kafukufuku kapena ukatswiri komanso sayansi yomwe imayambitsa phunzirani chiyambi cha mawu. Zikuwoneka zosavuta, koma sizophweka. Ngakhale titha kunena kuti ndichinthu china chodabwitsa, kuti chimatipatsira zinsinsi zambiri. Pofuna kusanthula komwe kunachokera ndikutsatira kupitilira kwa nthawi m'mawu aliwonse, etymology imakhalanso ndi zothandizira zosiyanasiyana. Popeza cholinga chake ndi kupenda komwe mawuwo amachokera, momwe amaphatikizidwira mchilankhulo komanso momwe zimasiyanirana malinga ndi tanthauzo komanso nthawi.

Etymology ndi mbiri yakale

Onsewa ali ndi ubale wabwino, popeza linguistics, kapena amadziwika kuti kugula, ndi ina mwanjira zomwe zimaphunzira za kusintha komwe kumachitika mchilankhulo nthawi ikamapita. Kwa izi, ndizokhazikitsidwa ndi njira zosiyanasiyana, motero zimatha kupeza kufanana m'zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana. Njirazi zimayang'ana kwambiri pamalipiro achilankhulo (mawu omwe amasinthidwa mchilankhulo china), nthawi zina timakhala ndi mwayi womwe umatitsogolera kuyankhula za mawu ofanana ndipo, ozindikira. Poterepa, awa ndi mawu omwe ali ndi chiyambi chofananira koma chisinthiko chosiyana.

Chifukwa chake, akatswiri azilankhulo zakale ayenera kuyamba kupanga njira yofananirako. Kenako muyenera kutsatira a kumanganso zilankhulo zakutali (omwe alibe chibale chodziwika ndi chilankhulo china), kuti muwone mitundu yonse yamitundu. Njira inanso yodziwira kusinthika ndiyo kuphunzira mawu omwe ndi ofanana komanso odziwika m'zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana. Mwanjira imeneyi, titha kumvetsetsa bwino komwe mawu omwe timagwiritsa ntchito amachokera.

Chifukwa chiyani muyenera kuphunzira etymology

Ndi funso losavuta kuyankha. Tsopano popeza tadziwa zomwe zili ndi udindo, tizingonena kuti chifukwa chake, tiwonjezera chidziwitso chathu. Bwanji? Kuzindikira tanthauzo kapena tanthauzo la mawu, motero mawu athu adzawonjezedwa. Kuphatikiza pa kudziwa magwero ndi zopereka za zilankhulo zina kumasulira kwina. Popanda kuyiwala kuti zonsezi, nazonso amatilola kulemba bwino. Malembo athu adzawonetsa kafukufukuyu. Chifukwa chake, kufufuza za etymology kumatipatsa zambiri kuposa momwe timaganizira poyamba. Koma palinso mfundo imodzi, ndipo ndiye kuti, chifukwa cha ichi, gawo lodziwika bwino kwambiri limatsegulidwanso. Kupanga ife kuwona momwe mawu adutsira mwa anthu osiyanasiyana, zaka mazana angapo ndi zochitika zake zonse, kufikira pomwe pano. Zosangalatsa, chabwino?

Kutchulidwa koyamba kwa etymology m'mbiri

Kuti tilankhule za kutchulidwa koyamba, tiyenera kubwerera kwa olemba ndakatulo achi Greek. Kumbali imodzi tili nayo Chikhali. Mmodzi mwa ndakatulo zazikulu zomwe Greece Yakale idali nazo. Zolemba zake zidasungidwa pamipukutu yamapukutu, koma ngakhale zili choncho zomwe zatsikira kwa ife zikuwonetsa chisakanizo cha zilankhulo zosiyanasiyana. Chifukwa chake etymology idalipo kwambiri m'malemba ake. Zomwezo zidachitika ndi Plutarco.

Wina mwa mayina otchuka, yemwe atayenda maulendo ambiri amayang'ana mamvekedwe osiyanasiyana omwe mawu anali nawo, padoko lililonse. Ngakhale 'Vidas Paralelas' inali imodzi mwazintchito zake zazikulu, osayiwala 'La Moralia'. Pomaliza, ntchito zosiyanasiyana za Plutarch zomwe zinasonkhanitsidwa ndi Monk Máximo Planudes. Kaya akhale zotani, mwa iwo amatchulanso za etymology.

The Diachrony

Pankhaniyi, imakhudzidwanso ndipo imagwirizana kwambiri ndi etymology. Koma pankhaniyi, titha kunena kuti Diachrony imangoyang'ana pa chowonadi ndikuphunzira kwake pazaka zambiri. Mwachitsanzo, pankhani ya mawu ndi chisinthiko chake chonse mpaka kufikira pano. Kuwona ndikuwona kusintha konse kwamawu kapena makonsonanti ndi mavaulo omwe mwina mudakhala nawo.

Ngati tilingalira kwakanthawi za diachrony ya Spanish, ndi kafukufuku wochokera ku Castilian wakale, zosintha zomwe zidachitika, kufanana kapena kusiyana ndi zilankhulo zachiroma, ndi zina zambiri. Pambuyo polemba ntchito ya wazolankhula Saussure, amene amasiyanitsa pakati pa diachrony ndi synchrony. Popeza lomalizirali limatanthauza kuphunzira chilankhulo koma pakanthawi kena osati m'mbiri yonse monga diachrony.